Tuberculosis : Causes , Symptoms , Vaccine and Treatment

Tuberculosis is an Infectious disease caused mainly by Acid Fast Becterium Mycobecterium Tubeculosis.it mainly affects your lungs but can affect other organs also.



It is estimated that about one third of the world’s population is infected with M. tuberculosis (tubercle bacillus), with 30 million people having active disease. it is commonly associated with HIV infection.nearly 50 percent of the HIV-infected population is coinfected with M. tuberculosis.

Causes :

Tuberculosis is caused by mycobecteria that spread from person to person through microscopic droplets released into the air. This can happen when someone with the untreated, active form of tuberculosis coughs, speaks, sneezes, spits, laughs or sings.

Symptoms :

Mycobacterium tuberculosis can affect any organ of the body most commonly lungs

Chronic Coug that lasts three or more weeks

Coughing up blood

Chest pain, or pain with breathing or coughing

weight loss

Fatigue

Fever & Chills

Night sweats

Meningitis: fever and deteriorating level of consciousness.

Arthritis (Joint pain)

Risk Factors :

Decreased Immunity

HIV/AIDS Infected person

Very young or old persons

Diabetes

Patient on Chemotherapy (Cancer Treatment)


Treatment and prevention :

1st line drugs used in treatment are

Isoniazid (H)

Rifampicin (R)

Pyrazinamide (Z)

Ethambutol (E)

Streptomycin (S)

The standard regimen for pulmonary infection is rifampicin and isoniazid for 6 months, with ethambutol and pyrazinamide for the first 2 months.

Regimens for other sites are similar, taking into account drug penetration (e.g. into CSF). There is a rising trend of MDRTB (multi drug resistant TB). Features that predispose a patient to this include:

previous incomplete treatment

being a known contact of an MDR patient

residence in a country where MDRTB is common

failure to respond to an adequate regimen.

Treatment of MDRTB is complex, requiring a combination of second-line agents, such as aminoglycosides , fluoroquinolones , ethionamide or cycloserine , guided by susceptibility tests.


Vaccine for Tuberculosis (BCG) :


Vaccination with attenuated bacille Calmette–Guerin (BCG) strain may protect against miliary spread, but trials in some countries have shown no benefit. Patients at high risk of developing tuberculosis may be given prophylaxis with isoniazid and rifampicin.

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