Tuberculosis is an Infectious disease caused mainly by Acid Fast Becterium Mycobecterium Tubeculosis.it mainly affects your lungs but can affect other organs also.
It is estimated that about one third of the world’s population is infected with M. tuberculosis (tubercle bacillus), with 30 million people having active disease. it is commonly associated with HIV infection.nearly 50 percent of the HIV-infected population is coinfected with M. tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis is caused by mycobecteria that spread from person to person through microscopic droplets released into the air. This can happen when someone with the untreated, active form of tuberculosis coughs, speaks, sneezes, spits, laughs or sings.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis can affect any organ of the body most commonly lungs
Chronic Coug that lasts three or more weeks
Coughing up blood
Chest pain, or pain with breathing or coughing
Fever & Chills
Meningitis: fever and deteriorating level of consciousness.
Arthritis (Joint pain)
Risk Factors :
HIV/AIDS Infected person
Very young or old persons
Patient on Chemotherapy (Cancer Treatment)
Treatment and prevention :
1st line drugs used in treatment are
The standard regimen for pulmonary infection is rifampicin and isoniazid for 6 months, with ethambutol and pyrazinamide for the first 2 months.
Regimens for other sites are similar, taking into account drug penetration (e.g. into CSF). There is a rising trend of MDRTB (multi drug resistant TB). Features that predispose a patient to this include:
previous incomplete treatment
being a known contact of an MDR patient
residence in a country where MDRTB is common
failure to respond to an adequate regimen.
Treatment of MDRTB is complex, requiring a combination of second-line agents, such as aminoglycosides , fluoroquinolones , ethionamide or cycloserine , guided by susceptibility tests.
Vaccine for Tuberculosis (BCG) :
Vaccination with attenuated bacille Calmette–Guerin (BCG) strain may protect against miliary spread, but trials in some countries have shown no benefit. Patients at high risk of developing tuberculosis may be given prophylaxis with isoniazid and rifampicin.