WHAT IS DIABETES ?
Diabetes mellitus commonly known as diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces.
Normally, the pancreas (an organ behind the stomach) releases insulin to help your body store and use the sugar and fat from the food you eat. Diabetes can occur when the pancreas produces very little or no insulin, or when the body does not respond appropriately to insulin.
As a result level of blood glucose increses as its uptake is stopped which can damage other organs like eyes,nerves,kidneys etc
A rare condition diabetes incipidus is different from dibetes mellitus (DM) in which kidney removes excess amount of fluids.
TYPES OF DIABETES
There are three main types of diabetes – type 1, type 2 and gestational.
1) Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, but occurs most frequently in children and adolescents. When you have type 1 diabetes, your body produces very little or no insulin, which means that you need daily insulin injections to maintain blood glucose levels under control. Learn more.
2) Type 2 diabetes is more common in adults and accounts for around 90% of all diabetes cases. When you have type 2 diabetes, your body does not make good use of the insulin that it produces. The cornerstone of type 2 diabetes treatment is healthy lifestyle, including increased physical activity and healthy diet. However, over time most people with type 2 diabetes will require oral drugs and/or insulin to keep their blood glucose levels under control.
3) Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a type of diabetes that consists of high blood glucose during pregnancy and is associated with complications to both mother and child. GDM usually disappears after pregnancy but women affected and their children are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES
Generally the oneset of disease is gradual there maybe acute oneset
There may be no sign or symptoms and disease maybe diagnosed after routine examination of other diseases.
The classical features of diabetes are
The amount of urine may be several litresin 24 hours due to excessive sugar in rine which act as diuretic.
2) excessive thirst
Patient may consume several litres of water to quench thirst. This is effect of polyuria and hyper osmolarity of blood.
3) excessive hunger
Patient always feel hungry. The symptom is due to non utilization of sugar for energy expendature.
4) rapid weight loss
There is rapid weight loss due to loss of water , glycogen , triglyceride stores.
5) dryness of mouth and throat
This is effect of polyuria
Frequent urination during night
Stools become hard and bowel movment may takes place after every 2-3 days
9) bulrred vision
10) in addition to the general symptoms of diabetes, men with diabetes may have a decreased sex drive, erectile dysfunction (ed), and poor muscle strength.
11) women with diabetes can also have symptoms such as urinary tract infections, yeast infections, and dry, itchy skin.
CAUSES OF DIABETES
Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease.
Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes.
Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are many. The following can raise your risk of devoleping type 2 diabetes.
1) Being obese or overweight
2) High blood pressure
3) Elevated levels of triglycerides and low levels of "good" cholesterol (HDL)
4) Sedentary lifestyle
5) Family history
6) Increasing age
7) Polycystic ovary syndrome
8) Impaired glucose tolerance
9) Insulin resistance
10) Gestational diabetes during a pregnancy
COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES
Having too much glucose in your blood for long time causes complications such as
1) ocular complications :
due to changes in fluid levels, swelling in the tissues, and damage to the blood vessels in the eyes.
Diabetic cataract : true diabetic cataract may devolep which is snowflake in appearence and is seen in juvenile cases.
2) Renal complications :
due to damage to the blood vessels in your kidneys.conditions such as polynephritis,renal arterioscleerosis leads to chronic renal failure.
3) Foot problems :
caused by damage to the nerves and reduced blood flow to your feet.
4) Gum disease and other dental problems :
because a high amount of blood sugar in your saliva helps harmful bacteria grow in your mouth. The bacteria combine with food to form a soft, sticky film called plaque. Plaque also comes from eating foods that contain sugars or starches. Some types of plaque cause gum disease and bad breath. Other types cause tooth decay and cavities.
5) Heart disease and stroke :
caused by damage to your blood vessels and the nerves that control your heart and blood vessels.
6) neurological complications :
Nerve problems (diabetic neuropathy), caused by damage to the nerves and the small blood vessels that nourish your nerves with oxygen and nutrients
Loss of vibration sense and loss of ankle jerk are constant feature of it.
7) sexual and genital complications :
caused by damage to the nerves and reduced blood flow in the genitals and bladder. Impotency and frigidity may devolep.erectile dusfunction is common in males and leucorrhoea devoleps in females.
8) Skin conditions :
some of which are caused by changes in the small blood vessels and reduced circulation. People with diabetes are also more likely to have infections, including skin infections.
9) Hearing impairment :
Hearing problems are more common in people with diabetes.
10) Alzheimer's disease :
Type 2 diabetes may increase the risk of dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease. The poorer your blood sugar control, the greater the risk appears to be. Although there are theories as to how these disorders might be connected, none has yet been proved.
11) pulmonary complications :
Tuberculosis is very common in diabetes which generally remains asymptomatic.skiagram of chest is must in all cases of diabetes mellitus.
HOW TO PREVENT DIABETES
Type 1 diabetes is caused due to destruction of insulin producing cells so it cannot be prevented.
Yet many other diabetes risk factors are controllable. Most diabetes prevention strategies involve making simple adjustments to your diet and fitness routine.
If you’ve been diagnosed with prediabetes, here are a few things you can do to delay or prevent type 2 diabetes:
1) Exercise regularly
There are many benefits to regular physical activity. Exercise can help you:
Lower your blood sugar
Boost your sensitivity to insulin — which helps keep your blood sugar within a normal range
Research shows that aerobic exercise and resistance training can help control diabetes. The greatest benefit comes from a fitness program that includes both.
2) Eat plenty of fibers
Fiber may help you:
Reduce your risk of diabetes by improving your blood sugar control
Lower your risk of heart disease
Promote weight loss by helping you feel full
Foods high in fiber include fruits, vegetables, beans, whole grains and nuts.
3) Go for whole grains
It's not clear why, but whole grains may reduce your risk of diabetes and help maintain blood sugar levels. Try to make at least half your grains whole grains.
4) Lose extra weight
If you're overweight, diabetes prevention may hinge on weight loss.exercise regularly and reduced the risk of developing diabetes by almost 60 percent.
Low-carb diets, the glycemic index diet or other fad diets may help you lose weight at first. But their effectiveness at preventing diabetes and their long-term effects aren't known. And by excluding or strictly limiting a particular food group, you may be giving up essential nutrients and often craving such foods. Instead, make variety and portion control part of your healthy-eating plan.
6) consult with doctor
HOW DIABETES IS DIAGNOSED
Several tests are performed to diagnose type 1 , type 2 and prediabetes such as
1) a fasting plasma glucose test measures your blood glucose after you have gone at least 8 hours without eating. This test is used to detect diabetes or prediabetes.
2) an oral glucose tolerance test measures your blood sugar after you have gone at least eight hours without eating and two hours after you drink a glucose-containing beverage. This test can be used to diagnose diabetes or prediabetes.
3) in a random plasma glucose test, your doctor checks your blood sugar without regard to when you ate your last meal. This test, along with an assessment of symptoms, is used to diagnose diabetes, but not prediabetes.
4) a hemoglobin a1c (hba1c) test can be done without fasting, and can be used to diagnose or confirm either prediabetes or diabetes.
RANGE IN FASTING PLASMA GLUCOSE TEST :
Less then 100mg/dl NORMAL
100 to 125mg/dl PREDIABETES
126mg/dl and above DIABETES
TREATMENT OF DIABETES
Controlling blood sugar (glucose) levels is the major goal of diabetes treatment, in order to prevent complications of the disease.
Type 1 diabetes is managed with insulin as well as dietary changes and exercise.
Type 2 diabetes may be managed with non-insulin medications, insulin, weight reduction, or dietary changes.
Medications for type 2 diabetes can work in different ways to reduce blood glucose levels. They may:
Increase insulin sensitivity,
Increase glucose excretion,
Decrease absorption of carbohydrates from the digestive tract, or
Work through other mechanisms.
Drugs commonly usesd in treatment are
Metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza, others). Generally, metformin is the first medication prescribed for type 2 diabetes. ...
DPP-4 inhibitors. ...
GLP-1 receptor agonists. ...
SGLT2 inhibitors. ...
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